RESEARCH QUESTION 2:
Factors Associated with Levels
or Changes in Symptoms
Methods Notes: All eligible studies must conduct multivariable evaluations of factors associated with mental health symptoms, which may include, for instance, pre-COVID-19 participant or community characteristics, pre-existing health characteristics, and aspects of participants’ experience during COVID-19 (e.g. infection, exposure to infected individuals, work status, lockdown status). Mental health outcomes must be based on validated diagnostic interviews, scales, or sets of items. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs are eligible, although cross-sectional designs will only be included if factors assessed were present prior to the outcome (e.g., sex, pre-existing medical condition) and not measured only concurrently. Thus, studies with multivariable analyses that include concurrent mental health or behavioural variables (e.g. information seeking, exercise) will be excluded, as these do not permit interpretation of directionality. Studies with < 100 participants will be excluded.
Summary of Results: Results from initial studies have been posted.
Comment: Comments are forthcoming.
*Abbreviations: NR= Not Reported
*For study 21717, % female participants refers to participants with female sex assigned at birth
*Abbreviations: BMI= Body Mass Index; CES-D= Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; DASS-21= Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; DMSM= Distress Management Screening Measure; GAD-7= Generalized Anxiety Disorder; GHQ= General Health Questionnaire; GPS-PTSS= Global Psychotrauma Screen, Post-traumatic stress symptoms subscale; HADS= Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HAM-A=Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale; HAI= Health Anxiety Inventory; HEI= Huaxi Emotional-Distress Index; IADQ= International Adjustment Disorder Questionnaire; IES= Impact of Events Scale; ITQ= Impact of Events Scale; K6= Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; K10= Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; NR= Not Reported; NS= Not significant; OR= Odds Ratio; PCL-C= PTSD Checklist-Cuvukuab Version; PHQ-9= Patient Health Questionnaire; PQEEPH= Psychological Questionnaires for Emergent Events of Public Health; PROMIS= Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; PSS= Perceived Stress Scale; SCL-90= Symptom Check List; SF-12=Short-Form-12 Health Survey - Mental Health Component; WHO-5= WHO (Five) Wellbeing Index; ZSAS= Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale; ZSDS= Zung Self-rating Depression Scale