PHQ Published Peer-reviewed Manuscripts 

Benedetti A, Levis B, Rücker G, Jones HE, Ioannidis JPA, Thombs BD, and the DEPRESSD Collaboration. An empirical comparison of three methods for multiple cut-off diagnostic test meta-analysis of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression screening tool using published data versus individual level data. Research Synthesis Methods. In Press. 

Wu Y, Levis B, Ioannidis J, Benedetti A, Thombs BD, on behalf of the DEPRESsion Screening Data (DEPRESSD) Collaboration. Probability of major depression based on the SCID, CIDI, and MINI diagnostic interviews: a synthesis of three individual participant data meta-analyses. Psychother Psychosom. Online ahead of print.

Levis B, Benedetti A, Ioannidis JPA, Sun Y, Negeri Z, He C, Wu Y, et al. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores do not accurately estimate depression prevalence: individual participant data meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2020 Jun;122:115-128.e1

Levis B, Sun Y, He C, Wu Y, Krishnan A, Bhandari PM, Neupane D, Imran M, Brehaut E, Negeri Z, Fischer FH, Benedetti A, Thombs BD, for the DEPRESsion Screening Data (DEPRESSD) PHQ Collaboration. Accuracy of the PHQ-2 alone and in combination with the PHQ-9 for screening to detect major depression: an individual participant data meta-analysis. JAMA. 2020;323(22):2290-3000.

He C, Levis B, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Levis AW, Azar M, et al. The accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 algorithm for screening to detect major depression: An individual participant data meta-analysis. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 2020;89:25-37.  

Wu Y, Levis B, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Levis AW, Azar M, Rice DB, et al. Equivalency of the diagnostic accuracy of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis. Psychol Med. 2020;129:109892.

Levis B, Benedetti A, Thombs BD, and the DEPRESsion Screening Data (DEPRESSD) Collaboration. Accuracy of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for screening to detect major depression: individual participant data meta-analysis. BMJ. 2019;365:I1476. 

Ishihara M, Harel D, Levis B, Levis AW, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Azar M, Rice DB, Sanchez TA, Chiovitti MJ, Cuijpers P, Gilbody S, Ioannidis JPA, Kloda LA, McMillan D, Patten SB, Shrier I, Arroll B, Bombardier CH, Butterworth P, Carter G, Clover K, Conwell Y, Goodyear-Smith F, Greeno CG, Hambridge J, Harrison PA, Hudson M, Jetté N, Kiely KM, McGuire A, Pence BW, Rooney AG, Sidebottom A, Simning A, Turner A, White J, Whooley MA, Winkley K, Benedetti A, Thombs BD. Shortening self-report mental health symptom measures through optimal test assembly Methods: Development and validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-Depression-4. Depression and Anxiety. 2019;36(1):82-92. 

Levis B, Benedetti A, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Levis AW, Azar M, Rice DB, Chiovitti MJ, Sanchez TA, Cuijpers P, Gilbody S, Ioannidis JPA, Kloda LA, McMillan D, Patten SB, Shrier I, Steele RJ, Ziegelstein RC, Akena DH, Arroll B, Ayalon L, Baradaran HR, Baron M, Beraldi A, Bombardier CH, Butterworth P, Carter G, Chagas MH, Chan JCN, Cholera R, Chowdhary N, Clover K, Conwell Y, de Man-van Ginkel JM, Delgadillo J, Fann JR, Fischer FH, Fischler B, Fung D, Gelaye B, Goodyear-Smith F, Greeno CG, Hall BJ, Hambridge J, Harrison PA, Hegerl U, Hides L, Hobfoll SE, Hudson M, Hyphantis T, Inagaki M, Ismail K, Jetté N, Khamseh ME, Kiely KM, Lamers F, Liu SI, Lotrakul M, Loureiro SR, Löwe B, Marsh L, McGuire A, Mohd Sidik S, Munhoz TN, Muramatsu K, Osório FL, Patel V, Pence BW, Persoons P, Picardi A, Rooney AG, Santos IS, Shaaban J, Sidebottom A, Simning A, Stafford L, Sung S, Tan PLL, Turner A, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, van Weert HC, Vöhringer PA, White J, Whooley MA, Winkley K, Yamada M, Zhang Y, Thombs BD. Probability of major depression diagnostic classification using semi-structured versus fully structured diagnostic interviews. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2018;212:377-385

Levis B, Benedetti A, Levis AW, Ioannidis JPA, Shrier I, Cuijpers P, Gilbody S, Kloda LA, McMillan D, Patten SB, Steele RJ, Ziegelstein RC, Bombardier CH, de Lima Osório F, Fann JR, Gjerdingen D, Lamers F, Lotrakul M, Loureiro SR, Löwe B, Shaaban J, Stafford L, van Weert HCPM, Whooley MA, Williams LS, Wittkampf KA, Yeung AS, Thombs BD. Selective cutoff reporting in studies of diagnostic test accuracy: A comparison of traditional and individual patient data meta-analyses of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression screening tool. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2017;185(10):954-964

Thombs BD, Benedetti A, Kloda LA, Levis B, Nicolau I, Cuijpers P, Gilbody S, Ioannidis JP, McMillan D, Patten SB, Shrier I, Steele RJ, Ziegelstein RC. The diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for detecting major depression: protocol for a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analyses. Systematic Reviews. 2014 Oct;3:124.  

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